Thursday, January 31, 2019

The Speckled Band and Lamb to the slaughter :: English Literature

Discussing The dashed Band and Lamb to the slaughter.British writer, creator Sherlock Holmes, the best-known research worker inliterature and the embodiment of sharp reasoning. Doyle himself wasnot a corking example of rational personality he believed in fairies andwas arouse in occultism. Sherlock Holmes stories have beentranslated into more than fifty langu epochs, and made into plays, films,radio and idiot box series, a musical comedy, a ballet, cartoons,comic books, and advertisement. By 1920 Doyle was one of the abouthighly paid writers in the world.--This is indeed a mystery, I remarked. What do you imagine that itmeans?--I have no data yet. It is a uppercase mistake to theorise before onehas data. Insensibly one begins to wriggle facts to suit theories,instead of theories to suit facts...--(from A Scandal in Bohemia, 1891)Arthur Conan Doyle was born at Picardy Place, Edinburgh, as the son ofCharles Altamont Doyle, a civil servant in the Edinburgh component ofWorks, an d Mary (Foley) Doyle. Both of Doyles parents were RomanCatholics. To increase his income Charles Altamont painted, made bookillustrations, and also worked as a sketch artist on criminal trials. non long after arriving Edinburgh he started to drink, he sufferedfrom epilepsy and was eventually institutionalized. Doyles mother wasinterested in literature, and she encouraged his son to take to books.Doyle claim voluminously. At the age of fourteen he had learned Frenchso that he read Jules Verne in the authors original language. LaterDoyles second wife, Jean, said My husbands mother was a veryremarkable and highly cultured woman. She had a dominant personality, absorbed up on the most charming womanly exterior. Charles Altamotdied in an introduction in 1893 in the same year Doyle decided to finish for good the adventures of his master detective. Because offinancial problems, Doyles mother kept a boarding house. Dr. TsukasaKobayashi has alluded in an article, that Doyles mother had a longaffair with Bryan Charles Waller, a lodger and a student of pathology,who had a deep impact to Conan Doyle.Doyle was educated in Jesuit schools. During this period Doyle losthis belief in the Roman Catholic reliance but the training of the Jesuitsinfluenced deeply his mental development. Later he utilise his friendsand teachers from Stonyhurst College as models for his characters inthe Holmes stories, among them two boys named Moriarty. He studied atEdinburgh University and in 1884 he married Louise Hawkins. Doylequalified as doctor in 1885. afterwards graduation Doyle practiced medicineas an eye specialist at Southsea near Porsmouth in Hampshire until1891 when he became a full time writer.

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Between 1820 and 1860 there were a few fundamental differences between the economies of the North and South Essay

?Between 1820 and 1860 on that point were a few constitutional contrasts between the economies of the normality and southmostbound. How far do you agree? Between 1820 and 1860 there were problems in America that resulted in the civil war in 1861, the parsimoniousness affected the northwest and confederation during the civil war, and some major differences helped winnings the civil war. However this does not mean that the deliverance had many unplumbed differences. For example the methods of earning money were antithetic, further over either both earned more(prenominal) than or less the same amount of money.Firstly, the main difference was that the trade union relied overmuch more on money from industry and manufacturing, as they had more connections with foreign countries, and more factories were built. In the North in 1860 there were 74,000 factories producing two thirds, of goods for America. Whereas in the southerly there were altogether 2 major factors Textil es factory in southeastward Carolina and an Iron works in Virginia set up in 1840. Although they had few factories, the Iron works was vital, as it supplied the North with weaponry during the Civil war.In 1850 the confederation plainly produced 10% of the nations manufactured output. However the federation did escape the industrialisation because their agricultural methods were so effective they had no need for change. The South was also very traditional and disliked change, whereas seven out of octette immigrants had chosen to settle in the North, and they had seen new ideas in other places in Europe so were welcome to change. This is shown by the Souths dig out force being trim from 82% to 81% over 60 years, on the other hand, the Norths labour force was reduced from 68% to 40% over the 60 years.This is however not a reflection on the North rapidly reducing agriculturally, because they still relied on agriculture, and a stripe of the North was still rural. Around the urb an areas, the people was increasing as towns and cities were developing swiftly. As the North had smaller but still prosperous farmers known as yeomen, they did not earn as much money through agriculture, because they did not have many or any slaves at all, so they could not produce the high quantities that the south did.Farmers that had lots of land were called plantation owners there were many more plantations in the south, and when the cotton gin was created in 1793, there was a boom in cotton, and the benefit of having slaves increased. This made Southern plantation owners invest their capital in the Slaves, because they produced so much cotton, which was very lucrative. 55% of slaves worked in cotton which shows how much money was made out of it.The South needed to captivate their goods to the North so that it could be transported abroad, but there was a lack of transport in South, as they solitary(prenominal) had 35% of the propose tracks, which affected them in the Civil war. This meant it was fairly costly to transport the cotton, but they still have a good amount of money if they lived near a train track. When the cotton arrived in the North the Lowell factory system meant the manufacturing of it was very cheap, which meant the North earnt a coarse margin on it.Although the danger of the South investment funds all their money in Slaves was that when slavery got banned, they lost a lot of money, which was partly why they were so keen to keep slavery. However only one quarter of the population possess a slave, as they were expensive (in 1860 they were $1800 which was double the price in 1820). The Norths economy was establish on free labour whereas the Souths was based on slave labour, which meant that the Norths economy was more stimulated by the presence of workers with money who could buy products, which would make money for the company, which in shimmer would increase wages or hire more workers.The Souths economy was largely devoid of thi s benefit. Essentially, the economy in the South was weaker and only based on a few important exports (cotton, tobacco, and sugar). This made the South less diversified, as they focused their sales on cotton. Another difference is tariffs in 1828 congress passes a controversial high protective tax. This majorly benefitted the North as they were the main distributors. However the South were very worried about(predicate) this because they believed that if they tallyped buying the expensive foreign goods, then foreign countries would stop buying their goods, as they would have tax on them too.This affected the economy until the tax was promised to be reduced after the law in 1833. In contrast the North and South didnt have many inherent frequency differences. They both created a lot of money, and were not lacking at all, the only difference was the method in which was used to make the money. The economic diversification was similar too, as 10% of Northerners owned 68% of the wealth , and the wealth was rule by the plantation owners, called oligarchies, as there were few free-soilers. 12% of the plantation owners owned half the slaves.This shows that there were few farmers, but the big plantations owned many slaves. Even though the North seems to be more industrial, the South also made efforts to modernise industrially, but they just lacked because of the closed opinions of the southerners. as well as not many people in the North and the South owned slaves, it was more of a rare thing, and the main owners, owned a large amount of slaves. However there was a larger need for slaves in the South, because there was cheap labour force from Europe settling in the North which meant slaves were more expensive so were not deemed as important. boilers suit I think there were many differences between the North and South between 1820 and 1860. Some affected the outcome of the Civil war such as the transport boom, and the industrialisation in the North, but a fundamental point is that numerically they have equal amounts of income there were just different methods to earning the money. However the differences were major the amount of industrialisation, and amount of agriculture, the manufactured output, and the need for slaves, was all very different for the North and South. The main similarity was the economic diversification.

Monday, January 28, 2019

A Memory

Remembered Event A remembered event is when something serious and interesting happens in a persons vivification. These twenty-four hour periodlights volition leave grave memories and emotions in peoples mind and it leave alone be unfor linetable forever. These days be usually one that people bequeath evermore want to talk ab kayoed and remember e truly moment of it. angiotensin converting enzyme of the most remembered events in my life is the take of my brother. It was March, 2008 when I found out that my have is pregnant.I was upset at the beginning, because all my life I was the whole child in my family and I was kind of mad, because I realized that right off my parents will pay attention at the new child, leaving me as the second plan. Up until celestial latitude, I had bad relationships with my parents, especially with my mother. Then, it was the beginning of December and I went on vacation with my aunt for a few weeks. genius day before we had to come back to M oscow, my grandmother called me and said that my mother is in the hospital and that she will most homogeneously have the bobble the next day.We already knew that it will be a boy. The next day I had my flight and we stopped half way because we had some problems with the plane, so I decided to call my parents and let them k forthwith about this situation. When I talked to my parents and my grandmother they told me that I have a baby brother now. At this moment something happened to me and e reallything changed inside. I was so happy to hear the good news. I was thinking about this the rest of my flight and I wanted to get home faster to go and play my brother.Next day, when I got home, my grandmother and I decided to go and visit my mother and brother at the hospital. I could non wait to get there, because I was really excited to see my baby brother for the first snip. Finally when we got there, I met my mother and by and by that the doctor brought in my little brother. The fi rst moment when I precept him I was so happy and I took him into my hands. He was so low-toned and he looked like me with his blue eyes and blond hair. I roughly cried at this moment. I realized that now he is the most important person in my life and he will be very close to me all my life.We will be invariably unitedly now and be able help to each other. Now, my brother is 4 geezerhood old. Those historic period passed very fast. Sometimes I do not like him at all and I can fight with him. He is very annoying sometimes because he has bad character and he is very active. It is too hard with him sometimes, but no matter what I actualise he is still very little and of course he will change. I am very thankful to my mother now that I have him. I do not know how my life will be even in the future without him. Now, I will always have support from his side.The past year I spent in America and throughout this time I cannot see how he is developing up like I used to. I am so sad be cause I cannot see him now, at the most interesting time and age for children. But I still call my parents every day and I can see him and talk with him. December, 2008 changed my life completely with my brothers birth. I am the happiest person because I have him. It was my giving mistake at the beginning, when I was getting mad at my parents and did not want to have a brother or sister. After his birth all my family became more and more important for me.Me and my brother 14 years apart, but this is very good for both of us because he will learn so much from me and I will always comfort him. He also will help me with everything and we will be together when we will have problems, help each other and be well-nigh our parents when they will be older. I think, it is very important in life to have brother or sister no matter if they are younger, older or same age. Still, this is a person for support, to grow up together with, and to learn something from each other.

Tuesday, January 22, 2019

How Islam responds to Relationships Essay

IntroductionThrough off this project, the intention of the information is to answer the dubietyHow does the adepteousness of Islam respond to issues on dealinghips?All through this Booklet, I capture unploughed in mind to focus on the ideas of Islamic kinships and what this substance to a Moslem, in the Islamic definition.In Islam a definition of relationships means jointure, announcement, invoke, families, children and so on Therefore, if applied to Islam in liaison to the now modern e realday lifespan this would involve issues such(prenominal) as* Men & Womens Roles in the family* Beliefs up remedy about the ethics of disassociate* Beliefs about inner Relationships* Religious military capability to the lend iodineself of contraceptionThese ar the subjects I will be talk about and looking over at the Islamic perspective on these flushics of concern. To portray the view Islam has over these issues I will be utilize* The genuine teachings from the word o f our God Allah himself, doing this through the Quran.* Referring to important hadiths (lessons) and quotes from the prophet Mohammed (pbuh)* The pith given out directly by the most knowledgeable top scholars.These should give a clear message of what, the view on these issues employ to be like, how they confirm progressed and possibly altered over the years, the differences on these looks from today in contrast to when the religion began, and how it is today, right now in Moslem houses and nations across the world.Islamic Marriage CeremoniesMarriage (nikah) is a solemn and divine sociable gouge between bride and groom. This contr bring is a strong cartelMithaqun Ghalithun as expressed in Quran 421.The sexual union contract in Islam is non a sacrament. It is revocable, two startleies interchangeablely agree and enter into this contract. two bride and groom have the liberty to define various terms and conditions of their thirst and make them a part of this contract.Mah rThe marriage-gift (Mahr) is Gods command. The giving of mahr to the bride by the groom is an essential part of the contract.And give the women (on marriage) their mahr as a (nikah) indigent gift (Quran 44)Mahr is a token commitment of the economizes certificate of indebtedness and whitethorn be paid in cash, property or movable objects to the bride herself. The amount of mahr is not legally specified, however, moderation according to the a suffer social norm is recommended. The mahr may be paid outright to the bride at the sentence of marriage, or deferred to a later date, or a confederacy of both. The deferred mahr however, falls due in case of death or dissociate. ane matrimonial party expresses ijab willing assent to enter into marriage and the some early(a) party expresses qubul repeatance of the responsibility in the assembly of marriage ceremonial occasion. The contract is write and signed by the bride and the groom and their two compliancyive witnesses. This written marriage contract (Aqd-Nikah) is past announced publicly.SermonThe assembly of nikah is turn to with a marriage address (khutba-tun-nikah) by the Muslim officiating the marriage. In marriage societies, customarily, a state appointed Muslim judge (Qadi) officiates the nikah ceremony and keeps the record of the marriage contract. However any trust worthy practicing Muslim croup conduct the nikah ceremony, as Islam does not advocate priesthood. The documents of marriage contract/certificate ar filed with the mosque (masjid) and local government for record.Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) made it his impost (sunnah) to have marriage sermon delivered in the assembly to solemnize the marriage. The sermon invites the bride and the groom, as easy as the participating guests in the assembly to a life of piety, mutual be intimate, manikinness, and social responsibility.The Khutbah-tun-Nikah begins with the praise of Allah. His serving and guidance is sought. The Muslim confession of faith that There is none worthy of worship bar Allah and Muhammad is His servant and messenger is decl bed. The three Quranic verses (Quran 41, 3102, 3370-71) and one Prophetic saying (hadith) form the main text of the marriage. This hadith isBy Allah Among all of you I am the most God-fearing, and among you all, I am the initiative held prudent to save myself from the wrath of Allah, yet my state is that I keep back postulation and sleep too. I observe fast and suspend observe them I marry woman also. And he who turns away from my Sunnah has no relation with me.The Muslim officiating the marriage ceremony concludes the ceremony with prayer (Dua) for bride, groom, their respective families, the local Muslim community, and the Muslim community at intumescent (Ummah)Marriage (nikah) is considered as an act of worship (Ibadah). It is honourable to conduct it in a Mosque keeping the ceremony simple. The marriage ceremony is a social as well as a religious activity. Islam advocate s simplicity in ceremonies and celebrations.Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) considered simple weddings the best weddingsThe best wedding is that upon which the least issue and expense is bestowed.Primary Requirements1) Mutual agreement (Ijab-O-Qubul) by the bride and the groom.2) Two prominent and sane witnesses.3) Mahr (marriage-gift) to be paid by the groom to the bride every immediately (muajjal) or deferred (muakhkhar), or a combination of both.Secondary Requirements1) Legal guardian (wakeel) representing the bride.2) Written marriage contract (Aqd-Nikah) signed by the bride and the groom and witnesses by two adult and sane witnesses.3) Qadi (State appointed Muslim judge) or Mazoon (a responsible person officiating the marriage ceremony)4) Khutba-tun-Nikah to solemnize the marriage.The Marriage bed covering (Walima)After the consummation of the marriage, the groom holds a banquet called a walima. The relatives, neighbours, and friends be invited in secernate to make them aw ar of the marriage. Both rich and sad of the family and community be invited to the marriage feasts.Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) stateThe worst of the feasts be those marriage feasts to which the rich ar invited and the poor are left out. (Mishkat)It is recommended that Muslims attend marriage ceremonies and marriage feasts upon invitation.Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) saidand he who refuses to accept an invitation to a marriage feast, verily disobeys Allah and His Prophet. (Ahmad & Abu Dawood)Roles of Men and Women within an Islamic FamilyIslam teaches that men and women are equal and that Allah will judge them equally according to the way in which they have lived. Men and women are sort of obviously different from each other and each have their trade qualities, both of these joined together in the act of marriage is what makes a family work well. Due to the differences and qualities, men and women have different responsibilities to their children and to each other. These responsibiliti es are in no terms biased against women, the responsibilities laid upon the parents are fit and equally as important to one another.Men do have the quality of normally being carnally and mentally stronger than women, and for this, they are evaluate to provide his wife(s) with sufficient money to allow her to buy food, deem anxiety of the house and look after the children.But this does not mean that the stick just has a financial role, not at all, the father is the attracter of the fundament in Islam, it is his responsibility to set the social and emotional dis jell for the home and family. Mens responsibility in Islam goes far beyond precisely financial. If the father is emotionally distant, perpetually angry, or closed off, chances are this will reflect throughout the rest of the family. Thus, the role of the father and married man as a tone-setter is a key element in the leading & running of the household. I notice in my own home that when my father is interlaced i n reading/activities, I will encounter interest and want to join him. Rather than get upset at me for interrupting him, he will usually try to include me in what he is doing in a way that is playful and educational. This allows me to fritter an interest in it as well, increasing the bond and emotional connection between us.Islam gives fathers and arrests a great deal of responsibility for raising their children. It was narrated that Abd-Allaah ibn Umar comprehend the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) say, Each of you is a guard and is responsible for his flock. The leader is a guard and is responsible for his flock. The man is the sheepman of his family and he is responsible for his flock. The woman is the shepherd of her husbands household and is responsible for her flock. The servant is a shepherd of his masters wealth and is responsible for his flock. He said, I heard this from the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).Wo men are expected to cook food, clean the house, and take care of the children only if the fathers do also have a part in the upbringing of the children and the daily house chores as Mohammed (pbuh) used to help his wife Khadija at the housework as well. too equal rights are given to both the women and men in Islam Women do have the right to study if they which, to refuse a marriage, to divorce, to inheritance, to keep their own names, to own property, to take part in politics, whether they are married or not.Women are owed to a greater extent(prenominal) respect in Islam than men and the pathway to heaven is at your mothers feet.Muslim Beliefs about the Ethics of DivorceMuslim marriage is supported by Islam and is classified as a very near act between a man and women however Muslims are not so ignorant to think that marriages dont run out. They do, it is acknowledged that they do, and since marriage is a legal contract between two muckle and if the duration of a marriage bring s misery to the couple and their children, it can be unthrough.In a hadith it statesIf a wife fears cruelty or defection on her husbands part, there is no doomed on the, if they arrange an lovable settlement between themselves and such settlement is best even though mens souls are swayed by greedAlso it is said that of all things allowed in Islam besides disliked (this is known as makrooh e.g. smoking) Divorce is the most hated of them all. A man cannot look to have a divorce from his wife until it is certain that she is not large(predicate), as they may re holding their mind and try and give it another go if the woman is pregnant. Also as divorce is much hated and is not to be done lightly at all, once divorce has been announced there is a period of three months called iddah this is a period of three months to allow for a possible reconciliation of the marriage. If there is no reconciliation then the divorce is permitted to take place.A woman is also allowed to have a divorc e, either by an agreement with her husband or be have got of his servement of her. Children are regarded as illegitimate if their parents are not married and, according to Shariah law, the father has no legal responsibility.These are the complete conditions of marriage in the contract and the flock in which it is permitted, backed up by quotes from the Quran.Requirements* Marriage implies that both husband and wife are able to live with one another with kindness, respect and cooperation. It is their responsibility to raise a family and it is a covenant binding on both parties.* There are times when marriages fail and no ascendent can be found except divorce.* The Quran orders men to either live with their wives on good terms or divorce them, but they are not to hold them hostage When you divorce a woman and they are about to fulfill their Idda, either take them back on comely terms or set them free, but do not take them back to injure them. Chapter 2, verse 231.* A woman has the right to seek a divorce from her husband if she knows that their marriage is doomed. If you indeed fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by God, there is no blame on either of them if she gives something for her freedom. Chapter 2, verse 229Muslim Beliefs about Sexual RelationshipsIn Islam, sexuality is considered part of our identity as human beings. In His reality of humankind, God distinguished us from other animals by giving us reason and will such that we can control behaviour that, in other species, is governed solely by instinct. So, although sexual relations finally can result in the reproduction and survival of the human race, an instinctual concept, our capacity for abnegation allows us to regulate this behaviour. Also, the mere fact that human beings are the only creatures who engage in sexual relations once they are beyond the physical capacity for reproduction, sets us apart from all other species, which engage in sex for the sole purpose of re production.Beyond child fag outing, sexual relations assume a prominent role in the overall well being of the marriage. In reading hadith, one is impressed with the Prophets ability to discuss all issues including those dealing with human sexuality. The topics range from questions about menstruation to orgasm. He apparently was not embarrassed by such inquiries, but strove to adequately guide and inform the Muslims who asked. Both Quran and hadith stir to the nature of sexual relations as a means of attaining mutual satisfaction, closeness and compassion between a wife and husband.Permitted to you on the darkness of the Fasts is the approach to your wives. They are your garments and you are their garments.(2187)AdulteryAlso, Muslims are advised to debar sexual intercourse during menses so as not to cause discomfort to the woman.It could be said that Islam has a very realistic perspective towards sex and realises that both men and women can be tempted to have a sexual relationshi p immaterial of marriage. Sexual activity of any kind is explicitly forbidden and adultery by the husband or the wife is a serious crime.Nor come night to adultery for it is a lurid deed and an evil, opening the road to other evils (surah 1732)Sex earlier MarriageNaturally, attraction between individuals is necessary to initiate a relationship that leads to marriage. But sexual relations can obviously take place between any couple, consenting or not. Because of the far-reaching ramifications of sexual relations right(prenominal) of marriage, God prohibits Muslims from such behaviour. And because the process that leads to physical attraction and ultimately thing is part of human nature, Muslims are advised to behave in a way and avoid circumstances that could potentially result in extra- or pre-marital sex. Modesty in dress and behaviour between women and men figures conspicuously as a means of exhibiting self-control. Similarly, unmarried couples are admonished against spending time alone in isolated places where they would be more likely to act on their feelings and thus be less inhibited.HomosexualityHuman beings are capable of many forms of sexual expression, orientation and identification. The subsistence of such a variety again is not found in any other species and thus further demonstrates our uniqueness among Gods creations. The potential for behaviour, such as homosexuality, does not mean that its practice is lawful in the eye of God. Therefore, individuals are expected to control themselves and not act on their desires if such action is contrary to the guidelines of Islam. Homosexuality, like other forms of sexual relations outside of heterosexual marriage, is thus prohibited. In any discussion of prohibited acts follows the question of what move ons if they nevertheless occur.The Quran and hadith are explicit regarding severe punishment by the State if a person is convicted of such a crime. However, in order for conviction to take place, the i ndividuals must confess or be accuse by at least four eyewitnesses of the act of actual intercourse. Obviously, the likeliness of these criteria being met is small which means that most couples who engage in guilty acts will not be punished by the State. They will then deal with the consequences of their behaviour in this life and will be responsible to God on the Day of Judgement. Only He knows how He ultimately judges.Muslim Beliefs about ContraceptionContraceptionAlthough Muslims are encouraged to have children, contraception is not prohibited. The method used during the time of the Prophet was copulation interruptus (known as azl) about which several hadith exist. His basic response when asked if such a practice was lawful was that individuals can do as they will, but if God intends for a child to be born, she/he will be born. Some interpreted this to mean that preventing pregnancy is not recommended because childbearing is prefer yet the act is not specifically prohibited. Also, other hadith set that azl could not be practiced without the wifes consent as it might interfere with her sexual satisfaction or desire to bear children.The Quran does not make any explicit statements about the morality of contraception, but contains statements encouraging procreation. Various interpretations have been set forth over time, and at the time of this writing, discussions on the web can be found intimately that take various positions. Early Muslim literature discusses various hitch methods, and a study sponsored by the Egyptian government concluded that not only was azl (coitus interruptus) acceptable from a moral standpoint, but any resembling method that did not produce sterility was also acceptable.It is permissible to use condoms so long as this does not cause any wound and so long as both husband and wife consent to their use, because this is similar to azl (coitus interruptus or withdrawal). But it reduces the sensation of pleasure, which is the right o f both partners, and reduces the chance of conception, which is also the right of both partners. Neither one of them is allowed to undress the other of these rights. And Allaah is the course of strength., Sex and Sexuality in Islam Condoms (2005) 4By analogy, the methods that exist today as contraceptives are lawful for Muslims to use at their discretion. Basically, it is our position that any method that does not involve pregnancy termination is permissible. imam al-Ghazzali lists a number of legitimate reasons for practicing contraception, including* Financial difficulty* Threat to mothers wellness* Chance of child being born with mental or physical deformities* Emotional or psychological hardship* Already having many children* economy of beauty and health.It should be clear from this discussion, that since sexual relations should be moderate to marriage, contraception is so limited. It is not considered a means of easing the difficulties associated with sex ual relations outside of marriage and should most certainly not be used in this way at all.ConclusionOverall, all in all in my total truthful opinion, I do count that Islam the true words from Allah does promote marriage among troupe, does accept that marriages do fail and permits divorce and the use of contraception.I accept that marriage breakages can happen and that they cannot be forbidden as the continuous misery of two people is worse than the split of their marriage so it should be permitted. However I do think that in todays modern society people are getting married with the thought that they can just divorce if it goes ruin but I believe this is truly wrong People should seriously contemplate whether or not the time is right for them to get married before they just go into it.Also in spite of being Muslim myself I feel that the permittance of a man having more than one wife is wrong and unfair on the women themselves, because no matter how fair the man wants to be, hell never be able to treat all them with the same fairness. Also I dont feel that a man is able to truly love more than one woman at the same time, so having more than one fair would make one think that the man doesnt actually love any of his wives but keeps them for pleasurably reasons only.I also have to dissent with a certain Shariah law stating thatChildren are regarded as illegitimate if their parents are not married and, according to Shariah law, the father has no legal responsibilityI believe this to be unjust as women cannot become pregnant by herself the man in full knowledge of what he was doing had sex with her, giving him responsibility for any offspring created from it. Also men may very well use this law as a means of taking advantage of women as they will not be held responsible for any children created as a result of it.Apart from those, Islam has a very modern and fair way of looking at relationships, and apart from those mentioned I dont believe that women are treate d unfairly in anyway at all.BibliographyThe holy quranthe companions of the prophet book2al-nawawis 40 hadiths morality & equality

Sunday, January 20, 2019

How to measure employees’ performance Essay

emulation of strategies incorporated amongst organizations is a tell-tale whereby the former companionship is do admirably economic and powerful through well formulated resources eachocation on its dodge. Of the many a(prenominal) findings a company must face to achieve success is how to sum employees executing and how to reward them (Kleiner and Gautreau 2001).For the avant-garde management accounting information dodging, it cannot lodge on financial measure al hotshot because management can check such data by cutting embody, investing less and thusly forth. The accounting system requires a mix of non-financial and financial data to make it a more(prenominal) balanced view of firms boilers suit performance (Bushman et al. 1996). query by Cumby and Conrod, 2001 indicates that non-financial information is highly value-relevant for knowledge-based industries and readn as an effective tool to evaluate an academic organization and demonstrate accountability to politic al relation and the public (Dorweiler and Yakhou 2005).Current non-financials could excessively predict organizations futurity financial performance (Smith 2005 Amaratunga et al. 2001). Unlike usual performance measurements system decades ago, more importantly now, is to measure performances relative to organizations goals and strategies. Amongst other key issues in the exploitation of performance measurement tools in past decades have been quandaries pertaining node loyalty. The emergent bleak generation is more educated with their customer rights thus, more demanding. Declining customer loyalty is due to extensive choices. Hence, corporations have to focus system and port to not merely selling products/services, nevertheless in like manner serving customers (Hope and Fraser 2001).Moreover, in that location has been a need to increase firms pace of innovation. Competitions have proliferated and firms must everlastingly refresh their strategies and methods generating new business concepts and processes while coping with the changing spirit of technology (Kaplan and Norton 2001). Additionally, prices are falling and costs ought to reduce to remain competitory and profitable. Hence, operation costs are challenged (Inman 2000). Furthermore, talented people are operose to find even harder to attract. Firms then have to provide a thought-provoking work environment that enables personal increase (Hope and Fraser 2001). Large businesses were leading and performing well financially but by early 80s they were displaced as market place leaders as competitors vie through quality, innovation, etc (Anthony 1998 cited by Kleiner and Gautreau 2001).Managing intellectual corking or knowledge wariness, is vital to discover competitive advantage at this era. companionship management being a long-term strategy, development of BSC encourages the company to align its management processes and focuses the entire organization to implement it (Arora, 2002). By implementing message turning the scorecard into a true management system and sustaining the system (Rohm and Halbach 2006). With BSC, intangible assets are valued (Marr and Adams 2004) while above issues have been intercommunicate also. The scorecard actually balances foreign measures with the intimate measures, financial with non-financial information and short-term with long-run performance drivers (Johnsen 2001 Cobbold and Lawrie 2002a). Strategy of firm in BSC is matched between internal capabilities and external relationships (Kay 1993 cited by Johnsen 2001). Strategy writ of execution is balancing internal and external demands. worry mold and performance measurement are concerned with decision relevance, thus, performance indicators on the BSC are important to managers (Mayston 1985 cited by Johnsen 2001). Learning and ripening perspective in BSC can sustain efficient employees while shareholders and customers necessitate are met by realigning values and sustaining goo d customer relationship in the customer perspective in BSC. Besides, business processes are innovated to keep up with the increasing pace of market uncertainties. BSC helps staff understand more, unlike before, how they could nominate to the strategic success of the organization as well as proven to be a valuable tool in linking vision and strategy to daily actions (CIMA 2001).BSC appears to be very effective and valuable for a divisional manager in a large US company (Mouritsen et al. 2005). The BSC has decidedly helped in daily planning activities for distinguishable industries. The strength of the scorecard is that it has ascertained the reasons due to its balanced-nature (Carmona and Gronlund 2003). In higher learning institutions, the European Foundation for eccentric Management was used as performance measurement, do not smoothen interests of all stakeholders and not linked to strategic management. Studies show that BSC is adopted or else (Cullen et al. 2003). Hotels als o rely on non-financial and financial indicators with increasing confidence in strategic issues (Harris and Mongiello 2001). By using BSC, organizations can also minimize the damaging consequences of risk (Scholey 2006) and identify cost reduction opportunities, resulting in overall cash advance (Anand et al. 2005).Albeit Cobbold and Lawrie, 2002a claimed BSC to be complete as no conduceitional perspective of believed worth(predicate) is added, in reality, variations in basic BSC are common some add a fifth perspective such as stakeholders, economic factors (Rohm nd Lord and Shanahan 2006). Some express skepticism about the claimed positive results and commented that BSC is in effect(p) a number crunching-exercise by accountants or just another in style(p) management fad (Angel and Rampersad 2005). Norreklit, 2000 argued that 4 perspectives do not accommodate all intangible assets, changing the BSC framework may put the causal logic of BSC into question (cited by Marr and Ada ms 2004). She also argued that the BSC is not a strategic control model because of its rigidness and static focus (Lord et al. 2005). BSC has also been criticized because it is bias towards shareholders and give to address to employees and suppliers (Smith 2005). Hoque, 2003 states that with wide ranges of measures, may lead to information overload.But findings show that BSC is not perceived to be a fad (Lord et al. 2005). There also appears to have no cause and effect dysfunctional organizational doings as claimed, the only causal is the improved performance in one perspective leads to an increase in another (Lord et al. 2005). BSC is maturing and approached because of its flexibility (Lord and Shanahan 2006 Bible et al. 2006). It has been argued that BSC does analyse employee satisfaction through the learning and growth perspective (Hoque 2003). Numbers of performance measures used were satisfactory and information overload was overcome through BSC (Yeniyurt 2003 McWhorter 2003 Arora 2002).However, BSC experiences bar in linking performance measures to strategy (Lord et al. 2005). Other issues include it does not carriage human resource and uncertainties issues usually through with(p) in PESTEL analysis (Smith 2005). In recent years, the Porters model had made its debut to help managers develop and implement long-term strategy (Sims 2001). The model is used to gain competitive advantage over another but does not determine for the strategic unit or as a corporation (Sims 2001). It also does not take into account the dynamics of markets which is rapidly changing. Another development adopted by large number of companies is the Economic Value Added EVA, which includes the cost of big(p), hence creating value but was heavily criticized for not being different from traditional methods (Yeniyurt 2003).The Skandia Navigator SN was later developed to measure intellectual capital by adding human perspective to the financial, customer, process and learning pers pectives (Roslender and Fincham 2001 Shaikh 2004). Although this opened new research fields on intellectual capital, the SN lacks incorporating financial and non-financial measures which is required to provide better performance measurement (Scarbrough and Carter 2001). Works have been done to modifying the traditional budgeting system-Beyond Budgeting Round Table BBRT emerged coping faster with changes and uncertainties of product and strategy lifecycles leading to lower costs and value creation (Hope and Fraser 2001). Management By Objectives MBO by Drucker, 1954 is found consistent with BSC-retained emphasis on achieving financial objectives, focussing on marketing and customers and pursuing innovation (Johnsen 2001). MBO is more open-ended but lacks a valid performance measure while BSC is focused (Anand et al. 2005).BSC habit is higher than other management tools like TQM or ABC (Hendricks et al. 2004). BSC ab initio was a performance measurement tool, after placing strateg y into it, BSC evolved to a strategic performance measurement system, illustrating flexibility and maturity (Bible et al. 2006 Cobbold and Lawrie 2002). Failure to focus assist and commit onto scorecard management and communicating them are reasons BSC whither and die albeit how prosperous the tool has been (Richardson 2004 cited by Hendricks et al.2004). In conclusion, it is important to realize the limitations of BSC. However, successful implementation by managers would bring about many benefits. Amaratunga D, Baldry D and Sarshar M (2001) butt against Improvement through mathematical process Measurement, Work Study, 50 5, p. 179-188Anand M, Sahay B and Saha S (2005) match menu in Indian Companies, Vikalpa journal for finish Makers, 30 2, p. 11-25Angel R and Rampersad H (2005) Do Scorecards Add Up?, CA Magazine, p. 12-18Arora R (2002) Implementing KM-A Balance Scorecard come near, Journal of Knowledge Management, 6 3, p. 240-249Bible L, Kerr S and Zanini M (2006) The B alanced Scorecard hither and Back, Management Accounting Quarterly, 7 4, p.18-23Bushman R, Indjejikian R and Smith A (1996) CEO Compensation The Role of Individual murder Evaluation, Journal of Accounting and Economics, 21 2, p. 161-193Carmona S and Gronlund A (2003) Measures vs. Actions the Balanced Scorecard in Swedish Law Enforcement, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 23 12, p. 1475-1496Cobbold I and Lawrie G (2002) The Development of the Balance Scorecard as a strategic Management Tool, paper presented at the PMA Conference, 17-19, July, BostonCobbold I and Lawrie G (2002a) Classification of Balance Scorecards Based on their Intended hire, paper presented at the PMA Conference, 17-19, July, BostonCIMA (2001) The Balanced Scorecard-An Overview, CIMA Technical Briefing, Harvard problem educate Press, USACullen J, Joyce J, Hassal T and Broadbent M (2003) Quality in Higher precept from Monitoring to Management, Quality Assurance in Education, 11 1, p . 5-14Cumby J and Conrod J (2001) Non-financial effectance Measures in the Canadian Biotechnology Industry, Journal of happy seat of government, 2 3, p. 1469-1930Dorweiler V and Yakhou M (2005) Scorecard for Academic Administration Performance on the Campus, Managerial Auditing Journal, 20 2, p. 138-144Harris P and Mongiello M (2001) Key Performance Indicators in European Hotel Properties General Managers Choices and Company Profiles, International Journal of modern Hospitality Management, 13 3, p. 120-127Hendricks K, Menor L and Wiedman C (2004) The Balanced Scorecard To cover or Not to Adopt?, Ivey Business Journal, 11/12, p. 1-9Hope J and Fraser R (2001) Figures of Hate, Financial Management, February Issue, p. 22-25Hoque Z (2003) Total Quality Management and the Balanced Scorecard Approach A Critical Analysis of their authorisation Relationships and Directions for Research, Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 14, p. 553-566Inman M (2000) The Balanced Scorecard, ACCA Stude nts Newsletter, February Issue, p. 37-41Johnsen A (2001) Balanced Scorecard Theoretical Perspectives and Public Management Implications, Managerial Auditing Journal, 16 6, p. 319-330Kaplan R and Norton D (2001) Transforming the Balanced Scorecard from Performance Measurement to Strategic Management Part 1, Accounting Horizons 15Kleiner B and Gautreau A (2001) Recent Trends in Performance Measurement Systems-The Balanced Scorecard Approach, Management Research News, 24 3/4, p. 153-156Lord B and Shanahan Y (2006) Management Accounting in the Corporate Sector Recent Research, Chartered Accountants Journal, 3, p. 29-31Lord B, Shanahan Y and Gage M (2005) The Balanced Scorecard A New Zealand Perspective, Pacific Accounting Review, 171, p. 49-77Marr B and Adams C (2004) The Balanced Scorecard and Intangible Assets Similar Ideas, Unaligned Concepts, Measuring Business Excellence, 8 3, p. 18-27McWhorter L (2003) Does the Balanced Scorecard Reduce Information rob?, Management Accounting Qua rterly, 4 4, p. 23-27Mouritsen J, Larsen H and Bukh P (2005) Dealing with the Knowledge Economy clever Capital versus Balanced Scorecard, Journal of happy Capital, 6 1, p. 8-27Rohm H (nd) A Balancing Act, Perform Magazine, 2 2, p. 1-8Rohm H and Halbach L (2006) A Balancing Act Sustaining New Directions, Perform Magazine, 3 2, p. 1-8Roslender R and Fincham R (2001) Thinking Critically about Intellectual Capital Accounting, Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, 14 4, p. 383-398Scholey C (2006) Risk and the Balanced Scorecard, CMA Management, 6/7, p. 32-35Shaikh J (2004) Measuring and Reporting of Intellectual Capital Performance Analysis, Journal of American Academy of Business Cambridge, 3, p. 439-448Scarbrough H and Carter C (2001) Towards a Second Generation of KM?-The People Management Challenge, Education and Training, 43 4/5, p. 215-224Sims A (2001) Generating Strategic Options, CIMA Insider, family line Issue, p. 24-26Smith M (2005) The Balanced Scorecard, Financi al Management, February Issue, p. 27-28Yeniyurt S (2003) A Literature Review and Integrative Performance Measurement Framework for multinational Companies, Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 21 3, p. 134-142

Saturday, January 19, 2019

Final Teen Pregnancy College Essay Essay

There ar some short phrases that can impact a persons life from leave behind you marry me to I write out you all the way beat to Im pregnant save when youre a teenagerager hearing the last phrase is something that go forth change your life in a scary and shocking way. nigh one million teen girls experience this shock each grade when they come to find that their pregnancy test is irresponsible. In our society immediately teenage pregnancy isnt just a problem save an epidemic. Unfortunately I cast seen all stages of the situation unfold late when my best colleague who is almost like a sister to me set out she was having a baby.At the age of seventeen a rule teenage girl is deciding what dress to wear to prom or where they want to apply for their initiatory job. But for my best friend Anna the first big ratiocination she got to make was whether she should clutches her baby or non. This resource lead her into a deep depression as different sight in her life pressu red her to make different choices. While her close friends told her to keep the baby the father of her baby and his family wanted her to abort it. After a long month of fighting over what to do she chose the babys life over the love of her boyfriend who ended up go forth after finding out she was not going to get an abortion. lamentably enough she is not the only one who has see this, unfortunately more than half of girls who rifle pregnant in their teens accept to go down this path alone without the father of the baby in the picture.It is apparent that seemly pregnant changed Annas life and her future as a whole. This happens to both teen mom go they decide to keep the baby, get an abortion, or give their baby up for adoption their life is still changed forever. Theses girls went from a life where their parents made decisions for them to a life where they have to make agnatic decisions themselves. Overall teenage pregnancy is a social issue because it affects many aspect s of life like economic wellbeing, the m some others wellbeing, and the childs wellbeing. If teenage pregnancy were reduced all of these problems would be reduced as well. Each year the United States is spending around eleven one thousand thousand dollars as an affect of teen pregnancy. The US has to spend this much property because eighty percent of teen moms are on welfare. Economic wellbeing contributes to the reasons so many teen moms have to be supported by the government.At such a young age these teens can not meet the demand for education in the job world plot of ground still caring for their new born. The national campaign sites that almost xc percent of teens who did not get pregnant finish high trail where as only fifty percent of teen moms get a high take diploma. The children of these mothers end up being affected by their mothers struggles. From conception odds are against these children to succeed. At return a teen mothers baby is at risk of low parenthood rate and infant mortality. Once the child gets passed these odds they have to engage with the struggles of being less prepared when they enter kindergarten because their mothers are less experienced on how to prepare their child. In later life sons of teen mothers are two times more likely to end up in prison than sons born to mothers over the age of twenty-one, this may be because of the absence seizure of a father figure in their lives. Studies have also have in mind that daughters of teen mothers are three times more likely to have a baby in their teens.Teen pregnancies disturb our society forthwith by using our tax dollars and affecting the success of our future generation. not only is teenage pregnancy seen at school and in other public places it is also all over the television. Some say that the familiar television figures sixteen and Pregnant glamorizes teen pregnancy and I would have to agree. Why should girls get rewarded for becoming pregnant as a teen and even beco me famous because of it? The answer is that they shouldnt but in our world today sadly these girls hardships our becoming our generations entertainment. But it is not much of a loss to them as they are being paid a reported $60,000 per season according to OK magazine. Many teens who see the show sixteen and pregnant or see other pregnant teens think that it will never happen to them.The fact of the matter is that my best friend was one of those people. Teenage pregnancy is not an issue that is going outside(a) in our society. Preventing teenage pregnancy will not only function our countries teenagers to have a more successful life but it will also help the children that will be our countries future to have a better life. The United States ineluctably to stop putting this problem on the back burner and accepting it as normal and start to take action. In the world today the United States has one of the highest teen pregnancy order doubling that Canada and five times the rate of Ja pan. American teens that are sexually active are becoming more and more careless.Some declare that these teens become pregnant because of the lack of education or lack of positive parental influences in teens lives. I think some teens just become so consumed with how in love they feel that they are with their boyfriend or girlfriend that they forget the consequences of their actions. America as a whole needs to find better ways to control teen pregnancy weather it be through education of the consequences or education of birth control. Because the real fact of the matter is that pre marital sex leads to broken homes, high school dropouts, and tough financial situations. These teens our still children themselves and should not make a decision that leaves them with the responsibility of another childs life.

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Case Study of Personality Theories Essay

Abdul Hnnan a 12 year overaged boy, who has been presented with language, academic and behavior difficulties. Hnnan had a traumatic deliin truth and suffered from hypoxia. Hnnans proterozoic motor and language milestones were grossly delayed. He sat and crawled at 2.6 age of age and walked after 3 geezerhood. His language was delayed and he intercommunicate his first words at 4.6 years to 5 years and in sentences after 5 years. His speech was unclear and could be understood by his parents at age 6 years. However, even now outsiders understood 75% of what he said. His gross motor skills and fine motor skills were poor. He started climb up stairs at 4 to 5 years and started pedaling at 5 years. He s gutter could not pedal a bicycle, tie his shoelaces and vent his shirt. Hnnan was a placid baby who did not respond, had no eye strain and had a squint. He slept for long hours and had to be contract-fed. He was hyperactive, destructive and strong-growing after 3 years.He banged his head. He dis desire visitors and could get very distressed. He hated any object in the house world displaced and insisted on having everything in order. He was very difficult to manage. He desire to spin around and jump. At the age of 4 to 5 years, he started noticing other children and started taking interest in them. He became little hyperactive, less aggressive and was more(prenominal) amenable to instructions. However, presently he was still unquiet and jumped a lot. He could still spin around for hours. He liked being on his own tho also could be talkative, over friendly and odd. He repeatedly asked the akin questions and was naive. For example, during the interview he repeatedly asked Can a cow hurt or not? What if I play with it, will it hurt me or not? He had constitution problems because of his hand tremors.He was always restless and distractible and could not sit for more than a few minutes. His memory was very good but his agreement was weak. His mother has to sit with him for hours to teach him language and concepts. He has difficulty with misgiving complex or abstract concepts. He did not catch problems in social interaction but had difficulties in social communication and imaginative and flexible idea. Difficulties with self control is presenting as restlessness, inability to follow bighearted agenda and paying forethought to other people, to what they might be saying, thinking or feeling.SOCIAL HISTORYAbdul Hnnan was born in Lahore, Pakistan by Pakistani parents. He was the first child in the family. His mother, Wajiha, had a positive family history. ane of her cousins was mentally retarded. Hnnan was born at term. His mother had high blood pressure. The comminute was prolonged, 11 hours and a caesarean was suggested but refused. He was born catch and blue. He had hypoxia. He was in NICU for 5 days. His birth charge was 2.54 kilos. He cried well after 15 days of life. Hnnans primordial motor and language milestones were g rossly delayed. He started noticing children at 4 or 5 years and started taking interest in them. Hnnans junior sister, Amen, 3 years of age was very sociable and talkative.Hnnans convey was more patient and his mother more irritable. Hnnan was very difficult till age 6 years and was aggressive, non-compliant and unreasonably demanding. As he grew quondam(a) he became more co-operative and could be rationalized with. Whenever his mother asked him to do something he do by 5 to 6 times. After that he started to argue. His mother used reprimands, bribes, threats and force to make him do things. Hnnan did not go to school. The family moved to Saudi Arabia when he was 7 years old. His parents took him to a Neuro-Developmental Pediatrician when he was 9 years old. His mother reported that he did not like to play with toys. exclusively he did was jump on a bed or spin around. He was very restless and distracted and had a short attention span. He could be very stubborn and insisted on d oing things his way. He was largely cheerful and friendly. He repeatedly asked the same questions and insisted that his parents answer them in the same way or he answered them himself. He watched the same cartoons repeatedly. He constantly jumped or spun around. He used to grab things from strangers. He ignored a child crying till age 5 years but after that he gradually became more empathetic. Hnnan avoided staying in crowds as he knew that he was different from others and thats why people were laughing at him.After that his condition got better. Following difficulties may become apparent in early childhood Problems performing subtle movements, such as ligature shoelaces, doing up buttons and zip, using cutlery, handwriting. Many will have difficulties getting dressed. They have problems carrying out playground movements, such as jumping, playing hopscotch, catching a ball, kicking a ball, hopping and skipping. They have a higher tendency to strike hard into things, to fall over a nd to drop things. Some find it hard to go up and down stairs. Some have problems with using scissors, coloring, drawing, playing scroll saw games.

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Relationship between Psychological Properties and Physical Properties According to Physicalism Essay

Physicalism refers to a stand by some philosophers that everything in the world is corporeal. Physicalism in some cases is referred to as squareism, where everything is envisioned to have animal(prenominal) properties. With respect to philosophy, Physicalism is the ontological point of view that there is cipher above and over the sensual. Physicalists view the nature or the world as one and believe that everything including mind has somatogenetic properties and thus it is physiologic. In the attack to prove their view of the world, Physicalists has come up with diverse explanation to multifariousness disclose the kindred that exists between incompatible conniptions of nature including rational states and properties.To find the relationship between sensual properties and cordial properties, realization, subtractive and supervenience humors have been employ by the somatogeneticists. However, critics argue that sensibleism is a false view of nature. This query paper will seek to determine the relationship that exists between psychical states or properties and forcible properties harmonize to Physicalism. In addition, the paper will bugger off into light reasons behind this relationship.Relationship between psychological properties and physical properties harmonise to PhysicalismIn the attempt to bring out the relationship between the physical properties and psychological properties, philosophers such as Lewis used supervenience approach. This approach is simply ground on meta-ethics and indicates that physical properties and mental properties be close connect due to the position that psychological properties argon part of the physical properties (Daniel, 2010). In other words, philosophers insist that psychological properties such as thinking atomic number 18 en unopen by physical properties. To make the seam certain, philosophers such as Lewis give an utilisation where he refers dots on a learn as physical properties and cl aims that the picture is like the global features or the world. The aforementioned(prenominal) way he affirms that psychological properties and other properties including biological properties are like dots on the global features. Supervenience idea of the explaining physicalism asserts that psychological properties are nothing but simply physical properties (Kim, 2008).Psychological or mental properties such as pain are viewed as physical according to physicalists as they believe that the physical aspect of pain is casu completelyy closed by the major physical properties. match to Kim, (2008), supervenience tries to bring out the identical aspect between the physical properties and psychological properties. The fact that psychological or mental properties are part of physical properties indicates similarity according to the physicalists (Daniel, 2010). This is particularly supported by the general view of physicalism that the world is a single stuff. match to the physicalists, m ental or psychological properties are dependant to physical properties and thus there squirt not be physical difference without psychological difference. Simply, psychological properties betide on material properties and thus they are salutary but the same thing.According to Physicalism, physical properties can be reduced to mental or psychological properties. The notion of reductive by the physicalism brings out the relationship between mental properties and physical properties (Kim, 2008). Essentially, physicalists use reductive idea to detect their idea that the world is made of a single stuff that is physical properties only. Physicalism philosophers affirms that there is a close relationship between physical properties and psychological or mental properties particularly basing their argument that mental properties are smaller components of physical properties and thus are physical properties. Realization conjecture is another approach used by the physicalism to bring out p ossible relations between psychological or mental properties and physical properties (Daniel, 2010). Based on this theory, all psychological properties can be realised through a particular physical basis (Kim, 2008).In a philosophical perspective, physicalists argue that all physical properties or predicates can be traced or are definable in physical language. This implies that there is a close relation between the two and according to physicalism they are inseparable (Daniel, 2010). Physicalists affirms that the fact that physical properties can be reduced to mental or psychological properties implies that the two are identical and simply has a close relationship.Physicalism believes that everything inside the world has physical properties and the world itself is a physical thing in its own nature. The developed comprehending from this argument is that everything considered as physical thing has its own physical properties which in macrocosm has its own psychological properties. This claim can be explained further by application of ontological perspective which involves both methodological and epistemological corollaries. According to the Physicalists, every intention in the world is composed of diametrical material which in reality encompasses different physical properties (Kim, 2011). Therefore, physical properties exhibit different properties such as mass, shape volume, energy, temperature and volume among others. In reference to the reductive physicalism, objects with high levels of properties are to a greater extent reducible because there is a high chance that they have physical properties. Jackson (2002) affirms that physicalism is more dependent on philosophical position which presents a myth that everything that exists in the earth has physical properties. From this explanation the soul developed is that physicalism is closely associated with philosophy of mind which extensively believes that mind is a physical object which can be viewed at di fferent perspectives (Kim, 2011).In reference to physical science point of view, physicalism includes bigger notations as opposed to just matter, space energy and time. The mind being in a form of a physical world, it is closely associated with non reductive physicalism. Fodor in his own question argues that physicalism is dependent will all genuine items which can be referred to either identical or are dependent upon other physical properties (Clarke, 2003). In order to accept these believe of physicalism, it vital to understand how it is related with mind dualism rejection. According to Fodor, mentalism is the best alternative of the dualism. Basically, physicalism believes that the concept of the sentience is entirely dependent of the physical properties (Clarke, 2003). The state of the mind is a useful that exists in a given system. In relation to the theory of functionalism, spirit is extensively believed to be a just biological implementation in a given system. The general understanding it, that the brain has capacity to pick out any change in mental status. Dualism theory is quite different from physicalism because it argues that consciousness is not related to the physical.According to Savellos and Yalcin, (1995), panpsychism theory explains that all items which contain aspects of reality within themselves have psychological properties in surplus to their physical properties. Critics argue that hardcore physicalists are more concerned to study the structure of the outer world in the bid of trying to understand the build relationship between the physical properties and psychological properties. Ultimately, the physical properties and mental are two distinctive area but they are contingently connected with from each one other. Philosophically, mind is believed to be dependent on the physical properties. Therefore, based with the explanation of the physicalism the empirical world is composed of all properties or entities which have make of cause s. Notably, both mental facts and physical have a close relationship with physicalism in relation to mental effects and causes. According to many physicalists the world in general is a physical hence everything in it have its own physical properties. When reviewing the world at a supervenience base, it helps to reflect the general thinking of the physicalists. This implies that the relationship between of thorough physical properties and psychological properties are closely dependent on each other as per the explanation of Physicalism (Clarke, 2003). The two features have the super C bond of metaphysics because they are depending on certain established physical facts. shoemakers last             From the above discussion, it is evident that Physicalism extensively refers to a developed understanding by some philosophers who believe that everything in the world is physical hence have its own physical properties. In addition, Physicalism can likewise be referred to as materialism, where everything is viewed to have physical properties. Psychological or mental properties such as pain are viewed as physical according to physicalists as they believe that the physical aspect of pain is casually closed by the major physical properties. Therefore, this is an indication that the state of the mind is a functional that exists in a given system.ReferencesClarke, R. (2003). Libertarian accounts of free will. Oxford u.a. Oxford University Press.Daniel .S. (2010). Physicalism, New Problems of Philosophy. RoutledgeJackson, F. (2002). Mind, system and Conditionals Selected Papers. Routledge, 2002Kim, J. (2008). Physicalism, or Something Near Enough. Princeton Princeton University Press.Kim, J. (2011). Philosophy of Mind., Limited, 2011Savellos, E. E., & Yalcin, U. D. (1995). Supervenience New essays. Cambridge England Cambridge University Press.Source register

The Assassin Strikes Again

Once thither lived a man named whoreson. Every twenty-four hour period he woke up brisk and renewed. mother fucker started the day by having a nice big stretch, and hence he did 100 press-ups. He took a cold shower and brushed his teeth with Sensodyne jackstones dressed him self in casual garment and left for work. old salt has a usual profession. He is hired by rich and powerful pack to murder the innocent and honest. shit became an assassin when he was a teenager. During his childhood he had been kind, generous and helpful boy. integrity day he was walking home with his sponsors. Jacks friends suggested that they should go through the pathway because it was a crosscut home. Jack agreed and so did the others. They walked through the dark, wooden-headed and frightening path, then they saw a gang of bullies in the alley but they decided non to run. It was a bad decision.The biggest bully started reliable outside(a) on Jacks smallest friend Mark. Jack consumed with anger, picked up a urge on bar and whacked it down violently on the bullys head Ahhhh Jack yelled ferociously, the bullies terrified ran away as fast as they could Jack kept on hitting and hitting the bully until he could not move a muscle. His ball over friends knew he had killed him. They ran way in unalike directions. The police arrived. Jack ran as fast as he could, until he was out of breath, Even now hes still running and running away from the Police.News travelled fast and within months rich and powerful people were hookging Jack to kill their enemies. During a few years Jack was responsible for 15 deaths of innocent people. He was there get throughered one zillion pounds to murderer a man chated turkey cock Matthews by his former friend Reece Jones. turkey cock and Reece had been best friends. tom was a kind, generous and an intelligent man. Tom had a beautiful wife names Angela. They had just got married ternary months ago Tom had joined Reeces company shortly bef ore. Every day he dressed in a black suit and went off early in the morning to work. He was on time all(prenominal) day and ready to go. Tom had a poor family back make and was determined to make best of his chances.Reece had a wealthy back found and was always wasting money on gambling. He was always new for work, Reece was very jealous of Tom.One day Tom got promoted to Assistant Manager, Reece was so furious he said thats it I will have Tom murdered When he finished work, he rushed home to call an assassin and arranged a meeting outside an abandoned house. He gave Toms details and his picture to Jack.Reece paid 100, 000 in advance the rest to take place when the job was done.Jack researched Toms lifestyle carefully and worked out when Tom would be alone. It was when he went through the junk yard as a shortcut to his home. Jack excogitationned the murder methodically. He would use a disinvest with a silencer to shoot him.On May 17th 2004 the plan took action. First he would pretend he was being attacked by a malevolent gang He would run up to Tom and beg for his help and say I am being attacked by a vicious gang who are trying to murder me.Tom was whimsical on the way home from work, feeling tired and sleepy when he was driving through the junk yard, a man rushed in move of his car, Tom stepped as hard as he could on the brake Tom stormed out of his car and asked mysterious man are you Ok the strange man replied no I am not I am being chased by a vicious gang who want to murder me. The stranger wore a black lash coat and a woollen knitted scarf covering him from the blurry fog and cold. The man told Tom he was delivering a package and was shocked when he saw a gang of teenagers brutally murdering an innocent man. Tom went a few steps ahead to chew the fat whether he could lay the gang.Jack took out his rifle from his right coat pocket and pointed it at when Tom looked at Jack with astonishment and a fear of death, Jack shot Tom with no hesitat ion or any forgiveness the bullet tore through the muscles as it went for the heart of Tom. Tom could follow the blood was red As a red paint. Tom could see the blood on Jacks shoes as he sink on to the ground as he was falling he repeatedly asked why, why When he fell on to the ground there was silence. Jack made Toms murder seem like an accident he put Tom into the car and drove Tom off the cliff.The next day Jack received the full payment from Reece. As Jack was reading the news paper, he saw that Toms death made the front page. Seeing Toms wifes picture made him realise that Toms wife was the girl he loved when he was in school. After thinking for several hours he came up with the decision that he should drive home to the police.The next day he stood in front of the police station thinking should I surrender to the police or not.

Monday, January 14, 2019

Israel and Judah

Israel and Judas idol trusted two men to de supportr His nub to the tribe of Judas and the children of Israel they were the prophets Isaiah and Jeremiah. (Mailer, 2006) Both of them got caught up In there on pixilated acts and disobeyed god. god was angry and punished the two for their pervert doings. It was though the consequences from idol that the two prophets begin to see how important and beneficial It was to them and to the lives of Christians that idols message channel delivered. The message god gave Prophet Isaiah a message to stress the magnificence of how they ask to repent of their cruddy ways and come back to God.Because of the beloved Isaiah had for his people he was compelled to warn them and barely them from punishment from God directly. Isaiah meaning message was to inform his people that only God undersurface save them, He is our King the only God we are to worship. The message God gave Jeremiah the Prophet was to warn thousand be cautious of fake pr ophets. Judas started to mean what the fake prophets were saying over Jeremiah. They soon saw that everything Jeremiah was trying to declaim them happened. (Willis, 2011). The message Jeremiah delivered said the Lord has been giving me his messages, and I shit passed them bulky to you all faithfully nevertheless time and time again no(prenominal) of you are listening to me (Holy Bible, 2001). God Instructed Jeremiah to warn Judas to stop living wicked lives and participating in evil doings but they didnt take worry to his warnings. God tried to warn Israel many times about their sins by sending those prophets. Each time they did not listen and were blatantly disobedient. Judas and Israel did things corresponding killing babies and offering them up as sacrifices they worshiped false idols, and participated in inner immorality.They would not stop there sinful acts nor did they see any wrong in what they were doing and repent. This make God so angry that He allowed separate nation with deadly weapons and soldiers that were more powerful than they to war against them. The nation God sent took everything including food, livestock even their sons and daughters. This nation destroyed their entire towns. God was out raged by Israel and Judos sins. He was angry they had the desire to worship other Idols, Israel and Judas brought the wrath of God on them.Since Israel and Judas refused to obey God, He said would annotation up all the armies under King Nebuchadnezzar to put them all to end completely. God was sending His wrath upon Israel and Judas to punish them for their sins. He was sentencing them to seventy years as captives. Isaiah had a strong desire to help stop the sins of his people. He mat up that the people of Israel had become a sinful nation as a whole. He believes that Israel left God and dishonored Him by their constant and flip disobedience to Him. Isaiah said that because of the sins of Israel it caused them to go in a direction frigid fr om God.Prophet Jeremiah warned Judas they should repent for their sins or God would send a curse upon them, they would be destroyed and turned Into slaves. God gave word to the prophets telling them that Because Masses top executive of Judas has done these abominations (he has acted more wickedly than all the Amorists who were before him, and has also made Judas sin with his Idols), therefore thus says the Lord God of Israel Behold, I am bringing such(prenominal) calamity upon capital of Israel Jerusalem the measuring line of Samara and the plummet of the house of ABA I testament wipe Jerusalem as one wipes a dish, wiping it and turning it upside down.So I will forsake the remnant of my inheritance and deliver them into the hand of their enemies and they shall become victims of flub to all their enemies, because they eve done evil in my sight, and have provoke me to anger since the day their fathers came out of Egypt, even to this day (Holy Bible, 2001). All God cute from Israe l and Judas was from them to ask for fogginess from their sins and come back to Him. (Willis, 2011). Jeremiah 301 declares l will also bring them back to the land that I gave to their forefathers and they shall have got it. (Holy Bible, 2001). Jeremiah was told by God that He was sending a nation to contend Jerusalem. God also wanted the name nation to attack Israel, but when accordingly had seen what happened to Jerusalem hey repented so God intervened and they all came back to God and received Him as their Lord and Savior. All of these happening were apart of Gods send off all along. The same messages given to Isaiah and Jeremiah back then are in time relevant to Christians all around the world today.Isaiah gave the message to his people that they needed to repent from their sins, leave there evil ways behind them, and deliver their lives back to God. That same message is the now word for this day in time. When we take a look at todays society as a whole we can see the evil amongst us. There is so such violence, we are dealing with homosexuality at a growing rate, we have thieves are robbers, and fornication. These issues we need to turn away from and stop doing because it dis gratifys God.If society can get it together and surrender to God the His Kingdom on man world be powerful. But we wont do it for the same reasons Israel and Judas didnt because they wanted to please their flesh. If we Just have a heart to serve God and live a life that is acceptable to Him things would be better. We would not be better but we would be constantly striving for perfection because God would then be the main focus. We must repent if we want to grow spiritually.Repentance is not so much for God but for us to acknowledge our wrongs so that we can know not to do it again. Not only has that penance from our sins brought us back to God.

Sunday, January 13, 2019

Poetry and Figuartive Essay

Since this weeks appraisals I have selected the following three metrical compositions My grandmas love garner by Hart Crane, The highway not taken Robert Frost, as well as Richard Cory by Edward Arlington Robinson. My Grandm early(a)s be intimate earn By Hart Crane (1899-1932) there ar no stars tonight barely those of remembering. Yet how much street for memory there is In the loose fortify of soft rain. There is even room enough For the earn of my mothers mother, Elizabeth, That have been passed so long Into the break of the pileus That they are br avow and soft, And liable(predicate) to melt as snow.Over the splendor of such space Steps essential be gentle. It is every(prenominal) hung by an camoufl timed white hair. It trembles as birken limbs webbing the air. I ask myself ar your fingers long enough to p ad however old keys that are but echoes Is the silence slopped enough To carry back the medicine to its source And back to you again As though to her? Yet I would turn over my grandmother by the hand through with(predicate) much of what she would not understand And so I stumble. And the rain continues on the roof With such a sound of mildly pitying laughter. (Thiel, 2005, pp. 295-296) The imagery in this verse is rattling opulent and gaudy.At the antecedent I see a profundity that is beginning to be lite up by affectionate reminiscences, like a sewerdle getting livelier and livelier. I can perceive rain dwindling on the roof at the same time. The granddaughter has ensnare some letters, perchance in an attic. The letters are ancient and brown with oldness. And with age paper develops inelastic and could fall by the piece without much assistance. As she starts to uncluttered the letters she derives to the comprehension that she must be very cautious. She is interrogative whether or not she should evince it.The rigorous of the rain falling on the roof sounds to her like her grandmothers amusement. Unfortunately I possi bly depart only take a couple belongings that rhymed. And I have faith in they are of no prominence. I think the grade is the silence strong enough is a hyperbole it is an embellishment hurtle demonstrates the idea that peace can be robust just not in a corporeal method. I adored this poetry because reading it do me contemplate of my own grandmother who was a saccharine and sympathetic woman.The Road Not Taken By Robert Frost (1874 1963) Two ways diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be single traveler, long I stood And looked stamp out oneness as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth Then took the other, as just as fair, And having perhaps the better claim, Because it was grassy and precious wearThough as for that the release there Had worn them really active the same, And both that morning equally lay In leaves no step had trodden black. Oh, I keep the first for another sidereal day Yet knowing how way leads onto way, I doubted if I should ever come back. I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence Two roads diverged in a wood, and I I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference. (Thiel, 2005, pp. 297 298) As I afoot(predicate) reading this metrical composition, I visualized a man upended at a fork in the street. The scenery is a forest, in the fall. The man stances for a huge time observing down both paths. He knew he could not tourism both paths as a whiz person, and he would have to indicate which on to take. He unambiguous to take the one less voyaged. As soon as he ongoing down the path he indicated he knew he would not be back to attempt the other road. Essentially he had made his verdict and had to stick with it.But by delightful the one less toured it made all the variance. I mull over this is a fiction on life, we can revenue the road that utmost revenue. The informal road and go somewhere. Nevertheless by captivating the tougher road or the road less voyaged it will be further satisfying. Line one, three, and quaternary had quatrains line one had kindling at the conclusion and line three had erected at the end where line four had could at the end. This is an instance of a virile rhyme. Lines six, eight, and niner had words on the conclusion of the doom that rhymed fair, wear, and there.Lines 11, 13, and 14 had words at the end that rhymed lay, day, and way. I ponder the edifice of this poem is from a floor viewpoint. Richard Cory Edwin Arlington Robinson (1869 1935) Whenever Richard Cory went down town, We people on the sidewalk looked at him He was a valet de chambre from sole to crown, Clean favored, and imperially slim. And he of all time quietly arrayed, And he was always human when he talked But serene he fluttered pulses when he said, good-morning and he glittered when he walked. And he was rich yes, richer than a powerfulness And admirably schooled in every thanksgivingIn fine, we thought that he was everything To top us wish that we were in his place. So on we worked, and waited for the light, And went without the meat, and cursed the bread And Richard Cory, one calm summer night, Went home and put a bullet through his head. This poem invokes up descriptions of a opulent, stylish, attractive man. feeler into town, and all the towns people, or masses just glare at him. All the towns individuals resented him, and require to be him, owed to his edification, refinement, and prosperity. He sported extravagant attires I depiction a ostentatious sequenced cortege like Elvis sported.Then one night he went home and utilize suicide. I consider that this poem is a metaphor that currency, affluence, trinkets, and good appearances cant buy you contentment. Every further purpose word pretty much rhymes. And I ponder it is inscribed in a stanza. I found that this poem had a vibrant declaration for the reader. Be comfortable where you are, the lawn is not continuously greener on the other side. References Thiel, D. (2005). Crossroads. New York, NY Longman. Plunkett, A. (n. d. ). My Grandmothers Love Letters. Poetry Foundation.Retrieved July 1, 2014, from http//www. poetryfoundation. org/poem/177645 Plunkett, A. (n. d. ). Richard Cory. Poetry Foundation. Retrieved July 1, 2014, from http//www. poetryfoundation. org/poem/174248 . (n. d. ). . Retrieved July 1, 2014, from http//www. juicerreview. org/ . (n. d. ). Poets. org. Retrieved July 1, 2014, from http//www. poets. org/ (n. d. ). Poets. org. Retrieved July 1, 2014, from http//www. poets. org/poetsorg/poem/road-not-taken http//www. impalapublications. com/blog/index. php? /archives/523-Richard-Cory,-b y-James-OFee. html. (n. d. ).

Saturday, January 12, 2019

Chapter one quiz

To evaluate a work of device properly we must deal with it in the context of culture that produced it b) art m social functionums c) our hold values d) our own time a) the 10. agree to Assayer (p. 19), what ar the three steps in the process of seeing? A) detection, processing, reference b) reception, extraction, proof c) looking, seeing, believing d) reception, interpreting, understanding 11. In The speech of Art, what, according to Nelson Goodman (p. 18), selects, rejects, organizes, discriminates, associates, classifies, analyzes, and constructs? The museum curator b) the Quintal political platform c) the artist Jasper Johns 12. How is battleground Montanas Bushfire and Corroboree dream same to Robert Smithson Spiral Jetty (up. 14-15)? A) similar coat and shape b) same subject proceeds c) each uses abstract symbols d) both use the same medium Short tell Questions 13. Part of Albert Birthrates influence for his painting The overstrung Mountains came from a very differen t source. What was it? 14. why was Robert Smithson Spiral Jetty different from handed-down landscape paintings? 15.Give an example from the textbook of an ar iirk utilise for political purposes. 16. There are ii basic steps to seeing. The first is sensible the second is 17. In Christi and Jeanne Clauses Umbrella Project, what two factors connect the two different sets of umbrellas to their locations? And 18. What cyclorama of ancient Australian ideology did Arena axiom include in his painting, Bushfire and Corroboree Dreaming? 19. Www Sheens landscape, The Central Mountains, raises an ordinary landscape scene to a higher direct of beauty, what the Chinese call Essay Questions 20.How did Christi and Jeanne-Claude regard the Umbrella Project? What was the intended symbolisation of the umbrellas themselves? The color? Geographic location? 21 . Using the industrial plant of Arena Motto and Www Chem., discuss the various slipway in which artists describe their world. 22. There are four roles that artists play that have not changed over the centuries. What are these roles and cite examples from Chapter 1 for each role. 23. Using examples from the chapter, how do works of art featuring the American 24. Explain how Albert Birthrates approximate Mountains represents the sublime.

Morality of Abortion Essay

Introduction In this paper, I go away argue that miscarriage is chastely unimp to each oneable in certain blank spaces. In defending this billet I will include the reason fucking my decision, and I will provide an alternate pillow slip using the same planetary principle. after(prenominal) explaining my principle I will reserve clarity to twain arguments that may be presented by others. Finally, I will contrive over by describing any changes that I suffer made to my general principle. II. Argument 1.)If a psyche is in a postal service in which she wander prevent an individualistic from donjon a brisk of distr deport and scurvy, and thusly it is virtuously delicious for her to do so. 2. ) In cases in which a suffer is in a space in which she privy prevent her unhatched shaver from living a aliveness of twinge and woe, by having an abortion 3. ) Therefore, in this cases it is virtuously un remonstrationable for a puzzle to pay back an abortion. II I. Explanation Rule star states an argument is good for you if and only if all of the premise atomic number 18 reasonable for you to consider. For this rule I will use a quasi(prenominal) perspective with the same general principle. If Allison is a situation in which her favorite heel severely breaks his leg and female genital organ non be repaired, because it is virtuously acceptable for her to euthanize the dog. In this example it is virtuously acceptable to euthanize the dog because the dog will non be able to walk again and will suffer because it will non be able to move. Therefore, if a person is in a situation in which she can prevent an individual from living a life of distressingness and suffering, thus it is morally acceptable for her to do so.The bit and third premise state that (1) In a case where a mother is in a situation in which she can prevent her un natural fry from living a life of pain and suffering, by having an abortion (2) Therefore, it is morally acceptable for a mother to have an abortion. In explaining my argument I will give an example that supports the second and third premise. If a mother is in a situation in which she becomes aware that her unborn child has an extremely painful and incurable sickness called Epidermolysis Bullosa, EB. This malady causes skin to blister on the slightest touch.many infants that are born with this disease are are con? ned to erosion bandages at all times and can non even with stand their induce parents touching them. In this case then it is ok for that mother to have an abortion. This act is ok because if the child is born with a disease that is incurable and painful then that child will be in will suffer for their whole sp adeptliness and in many cases live a very utterly life. Therefore if a mother is in a situation in which she is able to prevent her unborn child from living a life of pain and suffering then it is morally acceptable for her to have an abortion.Rule two states tha t the argument must have a pattern such(prenominal) that if the exposit are adjust, then the conclusion must follow. 1. ) If P, then Q 2. ) P 3. ) Therefore, Q 1. ) If P (a person is in a situation in which she can prevent an individual from living a life of pain and suffering), then Q (it is morally acceptable for her to do so. ) 2. ) P (In a case where a mother is in a situation in which she can prevent her unborn child from living a life of pain and suffering, by having an abortion), 3.)Therefore, Q (in some cases it is morally acceptable for a mother to have an abortion. ) IV. Objection An objection that may arise from premise one is that if a person is in a situation in which they sacri? ce their declare life to prevent pain and suffering of another individual, then it is not morally acceptable for them to do so. An example of this is if spear is in a situation in which he can take the place of a person in lonely(prenominal) con? nement, which causes psychological pain and suffering, it is not morally acceptable for him to do so.It is not morally acceptable because although the individual is suffering they knowingly participated in the act that resulted in the pain and suffering. This example expresses a impact of rule two because the argument does not follow a pattern in which the conclusion follows. Another objection that may arise from premise one is if a mother is in a situation in which she can violate the flop to life of another person, the fetus, and the fetus is not threatening the mothers life, then it is morally disparage for the mother to violate the fetus right to life.My response to this argument is that although the mothers life is not in endangerment by having the fetus, after the fetus is born they will live a short and extremely difficult life. This example is a violation of rule two because the premises are not reasonable to believe. V. certainty When thinking more or less the situation previously stated in the paper, I appr oximation about the many options that could be presented when confronted with information, such as the fetus has an incurable and super painful disease.By weighing the pros and cons of each principle I was able to throw my principle that was stated above. While compose this paper I have changed my general principle by adding the word suffering. By adding this one word I believe that it changes the argument by including another cheek that can make a life unbearable. When ? rst thinking about the reasoning behind my paper I thought about all view points that I could take, tho I was able to stay true to my original belief of pro-choice by creating an argument that supports one aspect of the abortion debate.

Thursday, January 10, 2019

Energy Efficiency – a Replacement to Load Shedding

Load desquamation is one of the biggest problem faced by everyone in Pakistan, no matter they atomic number 18 domestic or mercenary consumers. Pakistan is liner a serious animation crises and it whitethorn get worse if not turn to seriously and promptly. Everyone is curious ab push through the economic consumption of government in dealing with this place and relieving consumers through speedy supply situation solvents much(prenominal) as new spot sources. Government is playing its role in establishing new power plants and potential of utilizing unleashed sources much(prenominal) as coal and renewable resources i. e. ind, solar etc.Domestic and mercenary consumers pass on more than 60% in the summarise electrical energy requirement of Pakistan. Currently, maximal energy dearth is 5500 MW in summers and immediate solutions argon unable to meet this deficit in near future. It is not recommended to a consumer to compromise on comfort by not operating slightly of the exalted priority appliances but slight flip in behavior may stand much more than expected. Main electrical energy take on contributors are cooling and warmth appliances used by domestic and commercial users.In order to quantify the impacts of such appliances, research has been carried regarding the fashion of commit conditioners in Pakistan. Consumers have been suffering from crises in take a shit of load shedding for hours in a day no immediate solution seems to be viable in extend summers. They tend to blame government and public-service corporation companies for not reducing load shedding. energy could be made available for extended hours but a mass take aim awareness about cost-efficient tradition of energy is required.Illegal connections, usage of ineffective and unnecessary appliances at aggrandizement have time has worsened the situation and advantage companies seem helpless about it. They are not left with any opposite option to reduce demand exclude through load shedding. Air conditioners are one of the major contributors in peak load in summer. They comprise 15% of the do peak load requiring at least 3000 MW for the country. A survey regarding usage of air conditioners was floated as a image of this research and 300 domestic and commercial consumers responded to the survey.One of the conclusions of the survey indicated that 21 0C is the sightly visit temperature for AC in households. From the resembling survey consumers were asked about the maximum control condition temperature used in household. The maximum bonnie temperature was found to be 26 0C. In order to investigate the influence of this control temperature on household energy consumption and peak load demand, an experiment was carried out on two similar buildings in Karachi. Two dwells of the dimension of 12 X 16 X 12 ft were used for this purpose.One inhabit was operated at 21 0C control temperature for 24 hours period while new(prenominal) at 26 0C. Observa tions and results indicated that a fit of 0. 45 KWhr saving was recorded in the room having AC operating at 26 0C. If this saving is extrapolated to expected number of air conditioners in Pakistan, then a total of 14. 5 GWhr of electrical energy could be saved in a hit day. In terms of power this give the bounce easily curtail a total of 607 MW out of peak demand, which is equivalent to some of the largest power plants in the country.If similar energy conservation techniques are applied for refrigerators and other cooling appliances then savings could be of much significant level. Due to on-going gas load shedding scenario, consumers may start turning towards electrical warmth appliances, which may potentially add up in electrical energy demand in near future. Large home awareness is required at severally level of consumption. Peak load shifting, disapprove illegal connections and utilizing energy in efficient way are our few manner lines. A single consumer contribution may seem insignificant but as a whole it can ease up towards reduction of significant peak load.

Wednesday, January 9, 2019

Language of Robinson Crusoe Essay

Daniel Dafoes popular figment, victorly entitle The flavor and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, Mariner Who lived 8 and twenty Years, all alone in an derelict Island on the Coast of America, climb the brim of the Great River of Oroonoque Having been cast on strand by Shipwreck, wherein all the work force perished only himself-importance. With an Account how he was at furthest as strangely received by Pyrates (iii), alike(p) close to classics underwent many editions through the years. However secret code but the first edition, which is the basis of this es rate, bum give us the look and sense of the time as intended to be installn by the author.EARLY MODERN incline According to Volume 14 of The Cambridge muniment of incline and American Literature in 18 Volumes, Early Modern position check marked the expansion of the utilize up of the face language outside England. yet if since incline was spread at motley times it has been sub jected to distinct processs and additional variations ca subroutined by attempts at etymological recite (Ward et al ch 15 sec 3 equating 1). These were evident in the novel in two aspects of language grammar and vocabulary (Ward et al ch 15 sec 1 equation 1-2).Among the inflectional changes during the early fresh face was the dropping of the weak vowel in verbs ending in ed (Ward et al. ch 15 sec 4 par. 7). Examples of these manifested not only in the title (the enunciate lay outd) but within the text itself such(prenominal)(prenominal) as calld, filld, encreasd, and fatigud. spell out withal appeared to be phonetically tough (Ward et al. ch 15 sec 3 par. 1) with linguistic process like perswasions, lyon, lye, and prophetick. Compounding of words were also used in the novel by lawsuits of free-school, hand-maids, ground-tackle and fellow-slave.However, the change in the verbs as puff up as the defects in recite was not applied to the entire novel which im qualitys us consider the reasons for such use. TOWARDS A sinlessness IN STYLE Daniel Defoe, in his agree An Essay upon Projects, emphasized that it was the responsibility of the social club to polish and refine the English vocabulary and to purge it from all the irregular additions that ignorance and foible have introduced as befitted the noblest and most all-round(prenominal) of all the vulgar languages in the globe (8).The spread of the English language was show in the novel when Robinson Crusoe teaches his servant Friday the English language. We may notice from an excerpt of their intervention below that although essentially Crusoe and Friday came to communicate in effect with each separate, Fridays English differs oftentimes from Crusoes parallel to their difference in status and origin Friday, My solid ground lecture much, for all that. Master, How musical rhythm if your Nation skirt them, how come you to be taken?Friday, They more(prenominal) many than my Nation in the d iscover where me was they take one, two, three, and me my Nation over beat them in the yonder Place, where me no was in that respect my Nation take one, two, great Thousand. Master, save why did not your Side detect you from the Hands of your Enemies consequently? Friday, They run one, two, three, and me, and make go in the Canoe my Nation have no Canoe that time. (Defoe, Robinson Crusoe 254) a great deal is the equivalent circumstance that brought about the variations and additions to the English language in which Defoe is clamoring for virtuousness (An Essay upon Projects 8).Shoar and Shore. Aside from the defective spell out mentioned earlier is the variation in the spelling (Ward et al. ch 15 sec 3 par. 1). An example if this is the word shore, spelled shore and shoar, in different context of the novel. It may be noted that shoar was only used in the part of Robinson Crusoes mishaps. That is to say, from the part of his captivity at Sallee until before his wreck on the island. These mishaps, Crusoe later(prenominal) reflected on, were results of his ignorance in the Providence of God and discontented thus the use of the spelling shoar. succession his solitary life in the island draw the learning process he underwent to depart and finally live harmoniously with his surroundings hence the renewed use of the spelling shore. In this regard, one may present that the use of the word was intentional to show the need and difficulty in creating a standard for the English language. videlicet and (viz. ). The use of foreign language in novels is preferably common throughout the ages. As such, we came to attention on the use of the Latin word viz. Oxford English Dictionary defines the abbreviation of videlicet which in the main means namely or that is to say (1033). Although Defoe used viz. without deviation and viz. in parenthesis based on the same definition, its participation in the account are quite different. The viz. without parenthe sis was used in identifying and qualifying statements such as the All the rest of that twenty-four hour period I spent in afflicting my self at the dismal Circumstances I was brought to, viz. I had neither Food, House, Clothes, Weapon, or Place to fly to (Robinson Crusoe 82). On the other hand, parenthesis, which appeared in lines like This was what I wishd for so I took them up, and servd them as we take to heart notorious Thieves in England, (viz. ) Hangd them in Chains for a alarm to others (Robinson Crusoe 138), was used as such in order to explain earlier statement. The use of parenthesis to differentiate the use of the same word in the novel advertise reflects Defoes quest for refinement of the English language as mentioned previously. CONCLUSION Indeed, regardless of the plot of the story which categorized it to fiction, the coating and language of the time is unmistakable.Robinson Crusoe, in its original version, allows us the indulgence to peek and appraise no t only the early modern English language but the period as well. The flexibility of the language then reflected the society of that time as it has eternally been for any period or era. At the same time, the novel provided additional locale for the author to disseminate his ideas and further his psyche attempt towards the transition to the modern English language and insertions to the importance of learning crosswise the spectrum of the society. Such power language has to influence its readers, whether consciously or unconsciously.And the duality that the novel showed made it a favorite among children and adults alike. Fulfilling its objectives to take hold and propagate (however subtle it may be). workings CitedDefoe, Daniel. An Essay Upon Projects. spic-and-span York Adamant Media Corporation, 2005. Print. . The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, Mariner Who lived Eight and Twenty Years, all alone in an uninhabited Island on the Coast of Americ a, near the Mouth of the Great River of Oroonoque Having been cast on Shore by Shipwreck, wherein all the Men perished but himself.With an Account how he was at last as strangely deliverd by Pyrates. London printed for W. Taylor, 1719. Print. Oxford English Dictionary. hot York Oxford University Press, 2005. Print. Ward, Aldolphus William, Sir, et al. The Cambridge History of English and American Literature. New York G. P. Putnams Sons, 1907-21 New York Bartleby. com, 2000 (Web) April 1, 2009.